Adler the Heart in Every Athlete

The benefits of improving an athlete’s mental acuity are seen in training and competition. Mental imagery (Finke, 1980; Callow & Hardy, 2011; Morris, Alfermann, Lintunen & Hall, 2003; Mousavi & Meshkini, 2011), self-talk, (Rogerson & Hrycaiko, 2002; Vealey, 2007), goal setting (Kingston & Hardy, 1997; Lock & Latham, 1990; Vallerand, 2007), under the umbrella of MST (mental skills training), are used with athletes in various sport disciplines. Behavioral Therapy, such as Cognitive Behavior Therapy (Frodi, Nilsson, Palmer, Regner & Gyllensten, 2010; Luiselli & Reed, 2011), and Rational Behaviour Therapy (Turner & Barker, 2014) are also used to enhance an athlete’s focus at the point of competition. Exploration into specific areas of an athlete’s life such as; work, love, self, social, and spiritual have been done independently (Daniels, 2012; Lamoureux, 2012; Parry, Nesti, Robinson, Watson, 2007; Sagar, Boardley & Kavussanu, 2011). Adlerian Therapy reviews these areas within the spectrum of inferiority to superiority (Bitter, 2007) and intricately strong connection between all such areas (Adler, 1927; Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956; Mosak & Dreikurs, 1967). This holistic perspective provides a comprehensive insight of an athlete’s phenomenology, which facilitates the implementation, and procurement of self-supporting devices and practitioner’s support (Amirault & Orlick, 1999; Sarkar & Fletcher, 2013). This literature review examines the different forms of support available to athletes, from a mind-set and behavioral perspective, parallel with Adlerian Psychology.

Sonia Nicolucci
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