Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is a neurobiological based childhood developmental disorder with impaired executive function (EF) affecting children's ability to function appropriately in the home, school and social settings. This paper will review empirical research studies examining: AD/HD, subtypes, issues in diagnostic assessment, prevalence, etiology, parenting variables, effective intervention approaches, co-morbid disorders such as, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and anxiety disorder. Most of the research effort focuses on investigating the parenting behavior and strategies associated with AD/HD with or without co-morbid disorders. Overall, the results show that parents of children with AD/HD and ODD or CD co-morbid disorders use more negative parenting strategies to control behavioral issues than parents of children with AD/HD only. Research found positive parenting strategies are more effective in managing behavioral issues of children with AD/HD and predict better long-term psychosocial developmental outcomes for AD/HD. Studies also demonstrate parents who complete behavioral parent training improve the quality of parent-child interaction, coping skills and behavior of children with AD/HD compared to a control group.
Parenting Strategies and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Improving Psychosocial Developmental Outcomes in Children with AD/HD through Positive Parenting
Patrick Stephen Robinson
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